Opinion: (Nikolay E. Ablesimov, from neablesimov.narod.ru): “One of the main characteristics of the development of modern science is the desire for integration, combination of methods of various sciences, and the establishment of general laws.
“The order in any system can be either in balance or imbalance. In the former case, parameters of the system are identical with the environment. In the latter case, parameters are different. Economic and social systems are also described through parameters.
“The balanced order is more stable, and resistance to disturbances is inherent in its nature. An ability to return to its original state is a property of self-regulating systems.
“The imbalanced order is of an artificial origin and exists only due to the application of external energy. Indeed, the imbalance of systems and environments brings about flows of matter and energy; to maintain order, losses have to be compensated from outside. If the supply of energy is stopped, the system will come into balance.
“In physics, a tendency towards balance is known as the principle of least action, in biology, as the law of survival, and in economics, as the law of supply and demand. Its essence is that the system tends to change in such a way as to minimize external disturbances and to get out of changes with the least losses. All suggested principles used to govern the stability of the phenomena and to belong to organization.
“Self-regulating processes are studied in “synergetics,” the theory of collective action. If cybernetics studies the sustainability of the use of negative feedback, and a general systems theory, the principles of their organization (discrete, hierarchical, and so on), the synergetics studies imbalance and instability as natural states, as well as their multiple and ambiguous development.
“Synergetics studies the imbalanced world in the uncertainty and alternative nature of its development, in chaos in which a future order appears.
“There is a multitude of development paths coming from the present state of the system (the bifurcation point). Then, they all converge in the next steady state (the point attractor).
“Synergetics studies the properties of divergence and convergence, bifurcation and attractors, patterns of development of self-organizing open systems, and transitions from chaos to order and from order to chaos.”