Question: Where do the measures of time originate from: seconds, minutes, hours, weeks, and months?
Answer: They originate from astronomy, from the movement of the Earth, the Sun, and the Moon with relation to one another. However, the upper roots lie in Zeir Anpin which is divided into six parts. Twelve Partzufim times two correspond to the 24 hour day. The Book of Zohar writes about this.
Humanity has instinctively established a time scale that corresponds to the spiritual root. Baal HaSulam gives a similar example about a peasant in ancient times who saw a mountain and called it the Mount of Olives. This name has a spiritual meaning, but he simply thought that it would be a good place for growing olive trees. This is the way the spiritual root works in a person.
The same applies to the measures of time. Their origins stem from the revolving of Zeir Anpin and Malchut, from 24 Partzufim, from six Sefirot, where each of them is ten, which corresponds to 60 seconds in one minute and 60 minutes in one hour. The upper system is reflected in our world in the form of the interaction between the Sun, the Moon, and the Earth.
This is also the origin of the division of time into months and years as well as the measures that do not have equivalents in astronomy, like a week, the seventh year, the fiftieth year, and so on. Everything comes from the spiritual world.
From the 4th part of the Daily Kabbalah Lesson 3/9/11 on Time