The Zohar, Chapter “Tzav (Command),” Item 56: There is remission of work on Sabbath and on good days for each according to its Behina [discernment/essence]—like the ox, on which there is the yoke, and the donkey, on which there is the load—between those who have the burden of the kingdom of heaven, like Tefillin, who are exempted on Sabbath and good days, and the burden of the kingdom of idol worship.
The Zohar speaks of states: weekdays, holidays, Sabbaths, and beginnings of the month (Rosh Hodesh). These are special Lights that come from GAR of the World of Atzilut to the souls in Malchut.
The broken souls ascend from the worlds BYA (Beria, Yetzira, Assiya) to Malchut of the World of Atzilut (Malchut de Atzilut) to the extent that they can connect to her, that is, desire to unify. Malchut de Atzilut turns to Zeir Anpin (ZA) de Atzilut, ZA to Abba ve Ima (AVI), AVI to Arich Anpin (AA), and, from AA de Atzilut, the Light returns to the same souls that have ascended to Malchut.
This Light that descends from Above varies in power and potency. There are Lights with the potency of Aleph (1st day of the week), Bet (2nd day), Gimel (3rd day), Dalet (4th day), Hey (5th day), Vav (6th day), and the Sabbath (7th day, Saturday). This is what we call them.
We can also describe them as the Lights that bring the desire to enjoy various qualities: Hessed, Gevura, Tifferet, Netzah, Hod, Yessod, and Malchut (the last quality, Sabbath). That is why there are Lights which vary in qualities which we call weekdays.
When we conclude a degree, a special Light comes called Sabbath, and that’s when working is forbidden for we are incapable of working with Malchut, the desire to enjoy. We can only work with the part that can be attributed to the desire to bestow, the six qualities preceding Malchut.
That is why the seventh day of the week is a day of rest, a day off. What does that mean? There is no work, but all the preceding work is accumulated and revealed in Malchut.
Then, there are 30-day periods that are based on the moon, that is, ZA‘s attitude toward Malchut. There are the holidays of the New Year (Rosh Hashanah), Sukkot, Shavuot, and others. These are all the various Lights that come from the Rosh (head) of AA.
Therein lies the entire program by which we work. All these Lights are called “awakening from Above” (Itaruta de Leila) because this luminescence does not depend on us. These Lights are constantly changing and influencing us, evoking various states.
Although we say that the Upper Light is in absolute rest, by that we imply that it does not alter its program, course, or direction. It does its function whether we want it to or not. If we are able to draw additional luminescence from it, that is to our benefit. If not, it will take care of everything itself.
That is why it is called absolute rest and not inactivity, for every moment the Light does an infinite multitude of actions on which we have no impact. However, we can evoke from it additional influence onto ourselves.
From the 1st part of the Daily Kabbalah Lesson 11/21/10, The Zohar
The Dating Of States