To grind into dust means that all egoistic desires that were in the golden calf lost their main form and became ready for correction and for mixing with the Torah, meaning with the Light that comes and corrects them.
Until now egoistic desires seemed as a deity in the form of some ornaments, idols, all that you want. But now they are taken out of egoism and turned into dust.
Therefore, the destruction of the golden calf and all that is done in the Torah is done correctly. All this has to be and a person must go through it, otherwise he won’t have his own perception and realization of the Creator; he would not able to become like Him.
From KabTV’s “Secrets of the Eternal Book” 5/11/16