Opinion (Nikita N. Moiseyev, prominent Soviet and Russian mathematician, full member of the Soviet and Russian Academies of Sciences): “Setting the task: We need to explain that people are also part of Nature, and we follow its laws, its logic. And a violation of this logic is destructive to society. Already at the first lecture, we should explain that a person has free will that may open the future for him, and at the same time, it can be deadly for him. And we need to learn to just talk about this duality, this contradiction, which is the essence of the science about man and his behavior in nature, the ambiguity of its reactions, the essence of intelligence.
“There should be different views: The difference between people, their living conditions, produces a difference of interpretation. And these differences should not be feared. They help to see the subject from different angles.
“The human being belongs to the system: The Universe is a system, that is, a collection of interconnected elements. The solar system, Earth, and the Human Being are part of this system. This human being, belonging to the system, can study its properties only from the inside, just what is available around him.
“That’s why people are able to comprehend only some of the properties of the Universe. And it will always be so: No matter how science advances, only the smallest facts about it will be available to us. We will always know only a fraction of what the Universe means, only the finite part of an infinite set.
“Periods of calm replace inevitable catastrophes: To understand the present, let alone look beyond the horizon, is possible only by knowing the process of formation of human species, as a biological type, its culture and civilization in general. We need to know the origins and characteristics of self-organization processes of the biosphere, which have created a man. And we already know a lot. We know, for example, that the periods of calm replaced inevitable disasters that direct development to new channels.
“Mowgli would not become a man: The phenomenon of the spiritual world is the effect of evolutionary development, not biological, but social. I would specifically analyze an example like Mowgli and explain why he could never become a man. Did Freud understand this?
“The multiplicity of society: It is important to explain the phenomenon of multiculturalism as a guarantee of the stability of society, as an analogue of biological diversity. For this purpose, it is convenient to use the example of Rousseau’s argument and show where he was right and where he was wrong.”